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Culture Traditional forms of Art - Professions textliles Epirus Ioannina

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Construction manner of woven articles (materials, tools, prices, etc.)


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Of great interest is the analytical presentation of 1) the materials and processing for the construction of yarn, 2) the implements and tools for weaving, 3) weaving and the processes after it, and finally 4) an approach as to cost and prices of the final product.From the Neolithic age plant or animal fibers were used in weaving. In 1883 the use of synthetic fibers began that are separated into regenerated fibers e.g. rayon, viscose and fibers industrially processed such as nylon, etc. simple organic compounds of chemistry. The most common animal fiber in Greece is wool and mainly ovine. It is one of the most basic raw materials of weaving. Centers of wool processing are known from long ago 2000 B.C. in Syria, Palestine and Egypt. In classical Greece the pastoral nature of people’s lives gave wool an important place. Also in the Modern Greek period wool is the primary raw material of home weaving. That is why special importance was placed in the production of finer quality wool that depended on the climate conditions, the soil, water, from the breed of the sheep while many times they proceeded to cross breeding with the ultimate goal of achieving better quality wool.
The kouros, namely the shearing of the sheep, is rough work because the wool of sheep as also of goats is saturated with fat (sargia) so the scissors, which is the basic tool, cannot easily penetrate the wool. In order for one to shear animals he must be familiar with the technique and of course have strength.
The time period of the shearing is specific: end of March or beginning of April kouloukrizoun or kolokourevoun the sheep, namely they shear the thighs, chest and belly of the animals. This wool is short and lower in quality and is called koulokra or koilomallo. In this manner the animal is relieved from the heat and parasites by removing its thick coat. The good wool comes from the regular shearing that takes place in May. This wool is long and called maisia. Souma or lagara comes from this. Taking care of the flock and its maintenance, as well as the shearing, were exclusively male chores.Following the carding is the spinning, a process that transforms the wool to yarn. For the spinning the distaff is used which is supported on the hip of the spinner or under the armpit. Except for the distaff the tsikriki is also encountered. The tsikriki is a wooden tool whose use was generalized in the 19th century and replaced the horizontal spinning manner of the distaff. It is a simple type of cylinder with a groove where the crossed yarn is wound.
The woman spinning pulls a few fibers of the wool, twists it with her fingers and ties the end of it on the spindle, making a loop on the top portion of the spindle where the koka is located. Turning the spindle like a top from left to right, when the spindle is so full as to make its turning difficult, they remove the loop from the koka, the spun yarn is wound on the spindle and they make another loop. The wool is spun clockwise and is called right or Ζ.
For short-hair wool the drouga is used, which the spinner holds in her hand and turns it from right to right. The distance the arm reaches in one spread is called aplosia (reach). After every reach the yarn is collected on the drouga. The wool is spun counter-clockwise and is called left or S.
During the spinning yarns are used with different twists on the warp and the woof because in this manner the woven material swells, becomes more durable and fluffier.
Another spinning manner is with the sviga. The wool is tied to the bottom of the spindle, the sviga or the plano. The bolt of wool is placed on the spinners lap. The wool is tied at the beginning with a loop on the spindle. The wheel is spun with the right hand while the left hand controls the feeding of the yarn that is twisted horizontally. Two yarns may be also spun together using the sviga. Yarns of plant origin
Cotton: cotton is the most common fiber of plant origin. The cultivation, gathering and treatment of cotton were done by hand. In the prefecture of Ioannina cotton was not systematically grown because of the mountainous soil of the area.In the Prefecture of Ioannina the material most widely used was wool given that animal breeding was the primary activity of the population entirely connected with the mountains of Ipirus.