Basic types of weaving.
The basic types of weaving in order to understand the evolutionary course of the art of weaving in Ipirus and primarily of the Prefecture of Ioannina. For weaving, a basic tool the structure of which will be seen in another chapter is the loom. Also required is a system layer of horizontal parallel yarns, the warp, which are stretched along the length of the loom and fixed front and back, and a system the mitari with their suspension that raises and lowers the yarns of the warp by levels creating openings, the lips of the warp, through which pass the shuttle and the woof. Ambas: It is the simplest material produced by the loom. It is thick and narrow. Its colour is natural, of the sheep, white or black or dyed in loulaki, the indigo blue. It is a material destined for general use. The Metsovian tradition calls it a-bai. The history of the ambas is presented in the commercial dictionary Hermes Kerdoos and confirms its extensive use in the Mediterranean. Its significance is particular for the population of the country as it reflects the culture of the agrarian world and is a characteristic of traditional production and consumption dominant in the markets of the 16th, 19th century. ) Dimito: is a material of more complex weaving than the previous one. It is formed with a double order of the warp. The yarn is organized during the warping but mainly following the organization of the warp between the mitari, the reels and the legs. The parts of the loom that we will refer to extensively in the next chapter, specifically the mitari, the legs and the comb are connected in such a manner as to open two holes, like two mouths, in the loom from where the warp and the shuttle pass through producing a dense skouti. The sum of the strings is separated to the 4 mitari. Two reels connect the mitari with the legs. The first and third mitari are connected with the first reel the second and the fourth with the second. The first leg with the fourth mitari, the second with the third mitari, the third leg with the second mitari and the fourth leg with the first mitari. The legs are connected with the mitari in such a manner so that with the pressing of the two middle legs the mouth is formed that in most openings creates a diagonal weaving. The strings are woven one by one.Kaltsino: to create this woven material, the warp is crossed by the woof. The weaving is done with the placement of two strings on each mitari and two on the comb. Four mitari are used tied in twos between themselves (the first with the second and the third with the fourth). Two reels correspond to each mitari. For material approximately 70 cm. about 600 strings and five heads are involved. The result is a dense weave as the strings are woven in twos. For the creation of the kaltsino double the number of strings is required than in for example the dimito. The combs are passed through in twos and so for the same width there is a double density of warp. Finally during the weaving a diagonal line is created. It is the most common material used for monochrome womens skirts. Rige (striping): its weaving is based on the simple technique of the loom, namely the continuous passing of the woof to the warp with the shuttle but also the mixing of colours gives us the rige (striping). Tradition deems rige as the first decorated woven material. It was used for the articles of secondary importance. The bezi woven material that is used for all chores is easily smoothed, transported and is always rige. The rige was used for clothing items, baby swaddling clothes, in back of pillows, aprons, etc. Woven articles are divided into two large categories that are made in order to cover human needs. They are a) woven types of garments, namely clothing and b) woven articles for the home, namely that include the types of household effects.